Please use this format when preparing papers for my classes.  The following is excerpted from the Academy of Management website.  To see the whole thing, go to  Thank you.




                  Giving proper credit to the sources of original ideas and previous work is an important aspect of

                  good scholarship. Inappropriate or inaccurate citations do not do justice to the authors cited and

                  can be misleading to readers.


                  Citations should be made in the text by enclosing the cited authors’ names and the year of the

                  work cited in parentheses. Example:


                  Several studies (Adams, 1974; Brown & Hales, 1975, 1980; Collins, 1976a, 1976b) support this



                  Please note the use of alphabetical order and ampersands. Also note that two or more works by

                  the same author (or by an identical group of authors) published in the same year are

                  distinguished by “a,” “b,” etc., added after the year.


                  Citations to the source of a direct quotation must give a page number or numbers; these follow

                  the date of publication and are separated from it by a colon. Example:


                  Adams has said that writing a book is “a long and arduous task” (1974: 3).


                  Also cite page numbers when you paraphrase or summarize specific arguments or findings of



                  If a work has two authors, give both names every time the work is cited in the text. If a work has

                  between two and six authors, list all authors the first time it is cited, then use “et al.” Examples:


                  Few field studies use random assignment (Franz, Johnson, & Schmidt, 1976).

                  (first citation)


                  ... even when random assignment is not possible (Franz et al., 1976: 23).

                  (subsequent citation)


                  For more than six authors, use the “et al.” form even for the first citation. But the matching

                  reference should give all the authors.




                  Include an alphabetically ordered list of the works you have cited in your article. This list should

                  begin on a separate page headed REFERENCES.


                  Alphabetize references by the last name of the author (the first author) or the editor, or by the

                  name of the corporate author (e.g., U.S. Census Bureau) or periodical (e.g., Wall Street Journal)

                  if there is no individual author or editor. Several works by an identical author (or group of

                  authors) are ordered by year of publication, with the earliest listed first. If the years of publication

                  are also the same, differentiate entries by adding small letters (“a,” “b,” etc.) after the years.

                  Authors’ names are repeated for each entry.


                  Book entries follow this form: Authors’ or Editors’ Last Names, Initials. Year. Title of book. (Book

                  titles are underlined and typed in lowercase letters except for the first letter of the first word and

                  the first word after a long dash or colon). City Where Published, State or Country (add only if

                  needed to identify the city, and use U.S. Postal Service abbreviations for states): Name of

                  Publisher. Please note and follow the punctuation used in these and subsequent examples:


                  Boulding, K. E. 1956. The image. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.


                  Kahn, R. L., & Boulding, E. (Eds.). 1964. Power and conflict in organizations. Glencoe, IL: Free



                  Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. 1978. The social psychology of organizations (2nd ed.). New York:



                  U.S. Department of Labor Statistics. 1976--83. Employment and earnings. Washington DC:

                  U.S. Government Printing Office.


                  Periodical entries follow this form: Authors’ Last Names, Initials. Year. Title of article or paper (in

                  lowercase letters except for the first letter of the first word and the first word after a long dash or

                  colon). Name of Periodical, volume number (issue number if needed): page numbers.



                  Fry, L. W., & Slocum, J. W., Jr. 1984. Technology, structure, and workgroup effectiveness: A

                  test of a contingency model. Academy of Management Journal, 27: 221--246.


                  Goggin, W. C. 1974. How the multidimensional structure works at Dow Corning. Harvard

                  Business Review, 55(1): 54--65.


                  Include an issue number only if a periodical’s pages are not numbered consecutively throughout

                  its volumes---that is, if each issue begins with a page numbered “1.”


                  If a periodical article has no author, treat the name of the periodical like a corporate author, in

                  both the citation and reference. Examples:




                  There is fear that Social Security rates may rise (Wall Street Journal, 1984).




                  Wall Street Journal. 1984. Inflation rate may cause social security increase. September 24: 14.


                  Chapters in books follow this form: Authors’ Last Names, Initials. Year. Title of chapter (in

                  lowercase letters except for the first letter of the first word and first word after a colon). In

                  Editors’ Initials and Last Names (Eds.), Title of book: page numbers. City Where Published,

                  State or Country (only if necessary to identify the city): Name of Publisher. Examples:


                  Berg, N. A. 1973. Corporate role in diversified companies. In B. Taylor & I. MacMillan (Eds.),

                  Business policy: Teaching and research: 298--347. New York: Wiley.


                  Roberts, F. S. 1976. Strategy for the energy crisis: The case of commuter transportation policy.

                  In R. Axelrod (Ed.), Structure of decision: 142--179. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


                  Unpublished papers, dissertations, and presented papers should be listed in the references

                  using the following formats:


                  Duncan, R. G. 1971. Multiple decision-making structures in adapting to environmental

                  uncertainty. Working paper no. 54--71, Northwestern University Graduate School of

                  Management, Evanston, IL.


                  Smith, M. H. 1980. A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy.

                  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin.


                  Wall, J. P. 1983. Work and nonwork correlates of the career plateau. Paper presented at the

                  annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Dallas.


                  A reference to an electronic document should include the author’s name, if known; the full title of

                  the document; the full title of the work it is part of, if there is one; the ftp, http, or other address;

                  and the date the document was accessed.




                  Present lengthy but essential methodological details, such as explanations of the calculation of

                  measures, in an appendix or appendixes. Presentation should be concise but not abbreviated.

                  Entitle a single appendix APPENDIX, typed in all caps; multiple appendixes are APPENDIX A,

                  APPENDIX B, etc.


                  Avoiding Sexist and Other Biased Language


                  Authors should avoid terms or usages that are denigrating to ethnic or other groups or that may

                  be interpreted as such. Be particularly careful in dealing with gender, where long-established

                  customs, such as the use of “he” as a generic pronoun (“a manager ... he”), can imply

                  gender-based discrimination. Using plural pronouns---changing “the manager ... he” to

                  “managers ... they”---is preferred.


                  Using the First Person and Active Voice


                  Vigorous, direct, clear, and concise communication should be the objective of all articles. Use of

                  the first person (“I” or “we”) and the active voice can further that objective. Examples:


                  Two of the four items were found to lack factor validity by Earley (1989). [Passive]


                  Earley (1989) found that two of the four items lacked factor validity. [Active]


                  Three new items were developed. [Passive]  We developed three new items. [Active, first